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Chilli is one of the maximum valueabe plants in India. The crop is grown largely for its fruits everywhere in the india. It is uses inIndia as a precept component of diverse curries and chutneys. It is also used as vegetable , spices , condiments , sauces and pickles. Dry chillies are used for curry powder. Red shade in chilli is due to “Capsanthin”. Pungency in cillies is due to active constituent “capsaicin”, an alkaloid, is extracted from chillies and is used to remedy.
Chilli saplings raised in closed nurseries have numerous benefits over those raised in open fields.
They have an independent root device, are comfortable from pest attack, have a robust stem growth, better transplantation potentialities and 0 according to cent mortality. Moreover, the soil medium inside the germination trays can be used to elevate 3 vegetation in a 12 months. The insect net protests the crop against Sucking Beat, Trips, Lady Minor etc.
ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF CHILLI
State – Major chilli developing tracts
Andhra Pradesh : Guntur, Warangal, Khammam, Prakasam, Krishna, Hyderabad, Nizamabad, Cuddapah, Rajamundry and Nellore.
Karnataka : Dharwad, Mysore, Hassan, Bangalore, Bellary, Ranibennur, Hubli, Gadag and Byadgi
Maharashtra : Nagpur, Nasik, Ahmednagar, Sholapur, Aurangabad, Nanded, Amravati
Punjab : Amritsar, Nabha, Patiala
Uttar Pradesh : Bareily and Khurja
Tamilnadu : Coimbatore, Ramanathapuram, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli, Virudunagar, Kanayakumari, Madurai, Salem, Tiruchi, Villupuram and Cuddalore districts
West Bengal : Murshidabad, South & North 24 Parganas, Nadia, Coochbehar, Jalpaiguri, East & West Midnapore districts
Chilli requires a warm and humid climate for its first-class boom and dry climate for the duration of the maturation of end result. Chilli crop comes up properly in tropical and sub-tropical regions, but it has a extensive range of adaptability and may resist heat and moderate cold to some extent. The crop may be grown over a extensive variety of altitudes from sea stage upto almost 2100 m above MSL. It can be grown for the duration of the 12 months underneath irrigation. It can be grown effectively as a rain-fed crop in regions receiving an annual rainfall of 850-1200 mm. Heavy rainfall leads to negative fruit set and in association with excessive humidity leads to rotting of fruits. Pungent chilli are vulnerable to frost. A temperature starting from 20-25°C is good for chilli. In chilli fruit improvement was found to be adversely affected at temperatures of 37°C or extra. High temperature associated with low relative humidity at flowering will increase the transpiration resulting in losing of buds, plants and small end result.
Chilli may be grown in more than a few soils, but black soils which keep moisture for lengthy intervals are appropriate for rainfed crop whereas nicely drained soils, deltaic soils and sandy loams are excellent under irrigated condition. However, in hills of Uttarakhand, chilli are grown in a wide variety of soils ranging from sandy to clay loam combined with gravel and coarse sand.
MAINTENANCE OF BUFFER ZONE
For organic cultivation of chilli, a buffer zone of seven.Five – 15 m is to be left all over the conventional farm, depending upon the place of the farm. The produce from this buffer area shall no longer be dealt with as organic.
Land is ready to a nice tilth by means of thorough ploughing / digging. Two to three ploughings are finished to deliver the soil to pleasant tilth. Stones and gravel are to be removed. In case of direct sowing, 3 to 4 ploughings are undertaken and sowing is done along with the remaining ploughing. The soil may be dealt with with azatobacter or azospirillum @ 1-1.25 kg combined with 50 kg of farm backyard manure and the equal may be broadcast inside the area. Farm Yard manure @ four-6 t and 1-2 t of vermicompost can be added per acre.
Chilli is propagated via seeds. For raising nurseries, seeds of high yielding types with tolerance to pests and illnesses may be used. They must be cautiously selected from licensed organic farms or from personal seed plot that’s raised organically. To begin with, chemically untreated seeds from neighborhood high yielding sorts could also be used, in the absence of organically produced seeds.
Pusa Sadabahar, Pusa Jwala and Pant C-1 are the chilli types for cultivation in Uttarakhand. However, the various farmers are developing varieties procured from Pantnagar for lengthy and even the use of their very own seeds.
Fresh seeds are sown in nicely prepared nursery beds. Although it may be sown via broadcast method inside the principal subject, transplanting technique is favored for better fine and survival. The nursery mattress is typically raised from ground level and is ready by way of thorough blending with compost and sand. Seeds dealt with with Trichoderma are sown and included thinly the usage of sand. The seeds germinate in five to 7 days. About 40 – forty five days old seedlings are transplanted inside the most important subject.
40-45 days old seedlings are used for transplantation. Transplanting is usually performed during the April-May inside the hills of Uttarakhand. Seedlings are transplanted in shallow trenches / pits or on ridges / stage lands. In some places, 60 cm x 60 cm or forty five cm x 30 cm or 30 cm x 30 cm spacing is also accompanied. However, a spacing of 60 cm x 30 cm with a plant populace of about 22200 seedlings in step with acre or 45 cm x 45 cm with a plant population of 19750 per acre are taken into consideration finest.
Direct sowing is practiced beneath rainfed situations. For direct sown crop, the seeds are drilled via the quit of March or first week of April. Seed charge is 2.5-3.0 kg in step with acre. After 30-forty days of sowing, thinning and gap filling is done on a cloudy day.
Chilli can not resist heavy moisture. Hence irrigation must be given most effective while essential. Frequent and heavy irrigation induces lanky vegetative growth and motive flower losing. Plant growth, branching and dry be counted accumulation are adversely laid low with excess irrigation. The wide variety of irrigation and c program languageperiod between irrigation relies upon on soil and climatic conditions. If the flora show drooping of leaves at four p.M., it is an illustration that irrigation is wanted. Flowering and fruit improvement in chilli are the maximum critical levels of water requirement. Normally chilli is grown underneath rain-fed condition.
However, underneath irrigated condition, care should be taken to keep away from the use of water infected with fertilizers, insecticides and fungicides. Irrigation must be achieved judiciously. Stagnation of water ought to now not be allowed in nursery beds and Generally weedings/hoeings are required to maintain the sector loose from weeds, the primary within 20-25 days of sowing and the opposite after 20-25 days of the primary weeding/hoeing. Wherever wished, depending on the weed boom one or two greater weedings can be taken up. Weeds which attract pests have to be allowed to grow inside the field to behave as trap and removed earlier than flowering. Earthing up is completed as and while necessary. Chilli may be cultivated organically as an inter or blended crop supplied all the other vegetation are grown underneath natural strategies. It is applicable to encompass a leguminous crop in rotation with chilli.Fields a good way to keep away from fungal contamination.
PLANT PROTECTION / PESTS
Thrips, mites, aphids, root grubs and pod borers are the most important pests in chilli. To keep away from infestation of root grub, only nicely rotten farmyard manure should be applied within the discipline. Application of neem cake @ a hundred kg/acre is really helpful for manage of root grubs. Change in the agronomic practices to disturb the life cycle of the grub is also observed beneficial. To control the infestation of root grub, mild traps can be laid out from March. Grass can be heaped at distinct places inside the area and the grubs which accumulate in these thousands may be amassed in the early morning and destroyed. 400 g/acre of Beauvaria bassiana can be broadcast in the discipline. Transplanting before first fortnight of April additionally allows in decreasing the incidence of root grub.
Application of neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) can be carried out for manage of thrips, aphids and mites. 10 kg of neem seed kernels can be boiled in 15 l of water. 200 ml of this extract can be jumbled together 15 l of water and 4 to five sprays can be given to manipulate sucking pests. Farmers additionally use seed extracts of Bakaine (Melia azadirach) at the side of Bichoo Grass (Urtica dioica) for control of pests. Release of larvae of Chrysoperla cornea, a bio manage agent, once in 15 days is also helpful in controlling thrips and mites. Fruit (pod) borers are the most important pests which purpose extensive damage to the crop. They can be managed to a certain volume with the aid of adoption of bio manage measures. Restricted installation of pheromone traps within the area @ 5 no. In line with acre allows to monitor the person moths. Ten days after spotting the moths inside the traps, four-five spraying with Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) @ 200 LE (larval equivalent)/acre is useful to manipulate the early larval degree of the pod borers. The egg hundreds of Spodoptera borer may be mechanically accumulated and destroyed. Trichogramma, an egg parasite, can be released two days after appearance of moths. Spraying of neem merchandise like neem oil, neem seed kernel extract and restricted use of Bacillus thuringiensis @ 0.4 kg/acre are useful. All the shed fruits and part of inflorescence must be accumulated and destroyed at regular periods.
Fruit rot & Die lower back due to Colletotrichum capsici and bacterial wilt are the two major diseases of chilli. Bacterial leaf spot, powdery mould and mosaic disorder (caused by virus) are the foremost illnesses of chilli. Careful seed selection and adoption of phytosanitary measures will take a look at the diseases of chilli. Early removal of affected plants will control the spread of the sicknesses. Seed remedy withTrichoderma takes care of seedling rot in nursery. Varieties tolerant to illnesses ought to be used anyplace the disorder is intense. Rouging and destruction of affected flowers help in checking the mosaic virus. For powerful ailment manage, 10 g of Trichoderma or Pseduomonas sp.In line with litre of water need to be used for spraying.
Chilli is notably perishable in nature. It calls for extra interest in the course of harvest, garage and transportation. Harvesting need to be accomplished at the right level of adulthood. Dark inexperienced fruit must be plucked for preparing chilli pickle. For dry chilli and for making chilli powder, choosing need to be executed while the fruit is darkish crimson. Ripe fruits are to be harvested at common durations. Retaining culmination for a long length on the vegetation reasons wrinkles and coloration fading. Crop is prepared for harvesting in about 90 days after transplanting. About five-6 pickings are made for dry chilli and 8-10 pickings for inexperienced chilli.
GROWTH PHASES IN CHILLI
The crop length of chilli is about 150-a hundred and eighty days relying on range, season and weather, fertility and water management. The boom of chilli contains of vegetative and reproductive phases. In preferred, the vegetative segment in chilli extends to 75-eighty five days accompanied by way of 75-95 days of reproductive phase. The vegetative section is characterised by means of boom in plant peak with profuse branching. Heavy branching is preferred for higher aeration and sunlight infiltration into the canopy over compact sorts. This additionally enables in stopping fruit rot. Flowering starts offevolved from 80-85 days of the crop or forty-45 days after transplanting. Chilli plant is an regularly cross pollinated crop with 50% of natural crossing. For fruit improvement and adulthood about 40 days time is required after anthesis and pollination.
The yield of sparkling chilli varies from 30-40 q/acre relying on range and growing conditions. Out of one hundred kg of fresh fruits 25-35 kg of dried culmination can be obtained. The yield of dry chilli is expected to be in the range of 7.Five to ten q/acre. However, in the gift model, yield of eight q/acre has been assumed