Tomato Cultivation

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Tomato cultivation is one of the most profitable agriculture commercial enterprise. Cultivating tomato is an incredible option for those looking to harvest a commercially important crop 4 times a yr. Tomato farming is viable each in conventional farming and greenhouse farming. Discover how to start a tomato plantation and grow tomatoes.

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Tomato is located in every kitchen global in distinctive paperwork no matter the cuisine. It is utilized in various ways inside the form of salads, juices, sauces, factor for numerous culinary arrangements, and so forth. Interestingly, tomato isn’t always a vegetable that we typically talk to- it’s far a berry-type fruit grown worldwide. It is the most important vegetable crop grown within the global after potato and sweet potato. China ranks number one as the largest manufacturer of tomatoes followed via India. Andhra Pradesh is the largest tomato producing country in India.

Tomato Plant Information
Botanically referred to as Solanum licopersicum, tomato flowers are really vines. If given ok guide they are able to develop up to 6 ft tall in conventional farming. Although they’re perennials, whilst reared in greenhouses they are able to stay up to 3 years. The vines are protected with quick hairs all over and the flowers are yellow in color.

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Fruit Vs. Vegetable Debate
Tomato, botanically talking is a berry but with much decrease sugar content material than different fruits. Hence, it is not a ‘sweet’ fruit. There are a variety of different ‘fruit veggies’ like avocado, eggplants, cucumbers, etc. Which can be botanically end result but cooked like veggies.

This have become a raging debate in 1887 when the United States Tariff imposed duty on vegetables however no longer on fruits. This is while the status of tomato gained importance. Finally, in 1893, the US Supreme Court labeled tomato as a vegetable and put this controversy at rest. This type became based totally on its use as a vegetable and now not botanically being a fruit.

Ideal Conditions for Tomato Cultivation
A warm however cool weather is needed for tomato. It can not face up to frost. However, it cannot tolerate excessive mild depth as well because it impacts the fruit pigmentation.

Climate for Tomato Farming
Being a warm season crop, tomato crop requires a great temperature of 21⁰ to 23⁰C. Tomatoes are fantastically sensitive to climatic modifications. For perfect boom and yield, tomatoes want a numerous set of climatic situations at every level of growth inclusive of seed germination, flowering, fruiting, and so forth. Tomato farming wishes a warm and funky weather with medium quantity of sunlight. A excessive quantity of humidity and frost can’t be tolerated. Similarly, both heavy rainfall and a prolonged dry spell have an effect on the growth of tomato flowers.

Soil for Tomato cultivation
Although tomato desires a various set of weather for its boom, it is able to develop on all types of soils from mild sandy soil to a heavy clayey soil. A properly-drained soil with a intensity of 15-20 cm is good for yielding a healthy crop. However, for a heavy yield, farmers cultivate tomatoes on silt-loam soils. Unlike many other plants, soil with high natural content is not advocated. This is because soil with high organic content is certainly high in moisture which can not be tolerated by way of tomato vegetation. If the soil is rich in mineral content material, then including natural content will help increase the yield.

PH for Tomato Farming
Soil pH falling inside the variety of 6.Zero to 7.0 is favored. A slight liming at the side of adequate nutrient supply can assist tomato vegetation grow better in acidic soil.

Water Requirement in Tomato Plantation
Tomatoes are sensitive to each excess water in addition to very little water. A principal challenge in tomato cultivation is hold an excellent moisture supply. During summer time it’s miles vital to irrigate the crop once per week even as irrigating it as soon as in each weeks is enough. Care have to be taken to prevent any drought length after a heavy watering dose. It may additionally affect the crop produce. In addition, drought observed by way of an abrupt watering during the fruiting phase could cause cracking in tomatoes.

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Crop Rotation with Tomato Crop
Tomato belongs to Solanaceae circle of relatives. Hence it can not be circled with different vegetation belonging to the same own family like potato, tobacco, bell-pepper, etc. It have to be circled with crops that fulfill the nitrogen content material of the soil. Leguminous vegetation are the most endorsed for this cause. Tomato plants are as a result rotated with leguminous plants like beans, pulses, and so forth.

Tomato Varieties in India
Seeds of tomato are used for tomato cultivation. Different varieties have been developed through research institutions which might be excessive yielding and proof against diverse illnesses. Some of these tomato sorts in India are:

Rajni
Early developing type.
Rounded, crimson-coloured end result.
Well-acceptable for lengthy distance transportation.

Rashmi
It is a extensively adapted, determinate range.
Rounded, red colored fruits.
The tomatoes have company and clean texture.
Resistant to verticillium and fusarium wilts.
Used for food processing.

Vaishali
A determinate hybrid type of tomato.
Each fruit is medium sized weighing about a hundred grams.
Well-suitable for tomato cultivation in summer season because it wishes hot and humid weather conditions.
Resistant to fusarium and verticillium wilts.
Used for tomato juice preparation.

Rupali
Early yielding, determinate and compact growing hybrid tomato range.
Produces true foliage cover.
Fruits are pink-coloured, round, firm and smooth.
Individual fruit weighs about one hundred grams.
Resistant to fusarium and verticillium.
Pusa Early Dwarf
Developed by IARI, New Delhi.
Early ripening cultivar with culmination being ready for harvest inside seventy five-80 days of transplantation.
Round culmination with a flattish base and yellow stem stop.
Their length varies from medium to massive.
Average tomato crop yield per acre is 15 tonnes.
Suitable for both processing as well as desk functions.

Pusa Ruby
Developed by IARI.
Early developing cultivar with a small furrow.
Fruits ripe uniformly and the stem cease has a mild yellow shade.
Can be sown in each autumn-wintry weather and spring-summer time cycles.
Suitable for processing and desk functions.

Pusa 120
Developed by using IARI.
The end result have a uniform ripening.
They are medium or big sized with an attractive and smooth texture.
The stem quit is yellow in coloration.
This variety is proof against nematodes.

Sioux
Developed and launched through IARI, Delhi.
This range is appropriate for cultivation in hilly regions.
The culmination are medium to massive in size.
They are spherical-shaped with a yellow stem end.
Their maintaining nice is low and as a result appropriate most effective for brief distance advertising and marketing.

Marglobe
This range is evolved by means of IARI, New Delhi.
It is a late maturing variety.
They are suitable for hilly vicinity cultivation.
Fruits are big, round-fashioned and feature a smooth texture.
They are juicy with a green stem quit.

Co1
Released by way of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
It is suitable for growing in South India.
The fruits ripen uniformly.
They are round and their stem stop is yellow.

Roma
Released by means of IARI, New Delhi they are relatively productive.
The plants produce great foliage.
Fruits are elliptical in form and their stem cease is thick and yellow.
Tomatoes are suitable for processing.

S-152
Developed and launched through IARI, New Delhi they determinate range.
Fruits produced are egg-formed and have a yellow stem quit.
They are appropriate for canning functions.

Punjab Chuhra
This range become developed and released with the aid of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana.
The culmination are elliptical with a yellow stem end.
They are suitable for processing.
Best of All
Developed and released by IARI, New Delhi, this range is of the indeterminate type.
They are appropriate for cultivation inside the hilly areas.
Fruits are borne in clusters.
Fruits are firm, round-fashioned and have a inexperienced stem cease.

Arka Abha (BWR1)
Developed and launched with the aid of IIHR, Bengaluru, this is a hybrid, semi-determinate range.
Individual fruit size varies from massive to medium and weighs approximately 75g.
They are oblate and feature a green shoulder.
Crop is cultivated in both Rabi and Kharif seasons and that they mature inside a hundred and forty days.
They are immune to bacterial wilt.
Average tomato yield in line with acre is 17 tonnes.
Table reason range.

Arka Alok (BER-five)
Developed and launched by way of IIHR, Bengaluru they’re determinate range.
Size of the culmination is massive and their form is square round.
They are purple with pale inexperienced shoulders.
Crops are cultivated in each Kharif and Rabi seasons.
They are resistant to bacterial wilt.
They mature in a hundred thirty days.
The common yield is 18 tonnes in keeping with acre.
Table purpose range.

Arka Ashish (IIHR-674)
They are a hybrid range developed and launched with the aid of IIHR, Bangalore.
The plants are semi-determinate.
Foliage of the crop is darkish inexperienced,
Fruits are thick red in coloration with very firm flesh and square-spherical shape.
Tomatoes of this variety may be cultivated in both Kharif and Rabi season.
They are tolerant to powdery mildew.
The culmination mature within 130 days.
Average tomato yield is 15 tonnes in line with acre.
They are suitable for processing.

Arka Abhijit
Developed and launched via IIHR, Bengaluru they’re of semi-determinate range.
Plants produce dark inexperienced foliage.
Individual culmination are spherical with size various from huge to medium.
Each fruit weighs approximately 70g.
They have a preserving satisfactory of 17 days. Therefore, they’re suitable for long distance transportation.
Tomato farming is feasible in both Kharif and Rabi seasons.
They are resistant to bacterial wilt.
Fruits mature and are equipped for harvest within one hundred forty days.
Average yield is 26 tonnes according to acre.

Arka Ahuti (Sel 11)
The flowers are of semi-determinate type.
Crops are cultivated in each Kharif and Rabi seasons.
They mature and tomatoes are prepared for harvest inside a hundred and forty days.
Suitable for table purposes.

Arka Meghali
This hybrid variety launched via IIHR, Bangalore has semi-determinate vegetation with darkish inexperienced foliage.
The end result are oblate in form with light inexperienced foliage.
Both Kharif and Rabi seasons are suitable for tomato cultivation.
They mature and tomatoes are ready for harvest within a hundred twenty five days.
The average yield is 6-7 tonnes in line with acre.

Arka Saurabh ( Sel – four)
This hybrid range released via IIHR, Bengaluru has semi-determinate flowers.
It has mild inexperienced foliage.
The end result range from medium to huge in size with a round nipple tip and light green shoulder.
Individual fruit weight is 70-75 g.
Variety is suitable for table purposes & processing.
Tomato is cultivated in both Kharif and Rabi season
They mature within one hundred forty days.
Average yield per acre is 14 tonnes.

Arka Shreshta
It is a high yielding hybrid range launched by way of IIHR, Bengaluru.
The vegetation have faded green foliage.
Fruit length varies from medium to massive
They are round and feature light green shoulder.
Individual fruit weighs 70-75 g.
They are firm and might closing upto 17 days. Hence they’re suitable for lengthy distance transportation.
They are Resistant to bacterial wilt.
Tomato farming is viable in both Kharif and Rabi season.
They mature within 140 days.
Average tomato yield in line with acre is 30 tonnes.

Arka Vardan ( FM hyb -2)
They are high yielding hybrid range developed and launched through IIHR, Bengaluru.
The fruits are large with inexperienced shoulder.
Individual fruit weighs one hundred forty g.
They are immune to nematodes.
Crops are cultivated in each Kharif and Rabi season
They mature in one hundred sixty days.
Average yield is 30 tonnes according to acre.

Arka Vishal (FM HYB -1)
This excessive yielding hybrid variety became evolved and released by IIHR, Bengaluru.
The end result are large with green shoulder.
Individual fruit weight is 140 g.
Crops are cultivated in each Kharif and Rabi seasons.
They mature inside 165 days of cultivation.
Average tomato yield is 30 tonnes in step with acre.

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