Sandalwood and saffron in the temple

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Sandalwood is a category of woods from trees in the genus Santalum. The woods are heavy, yellow, and great-grained, and, unlike many other aromatic woods, they preserve their perfume for many years. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for use. Sandalwood is the second one-most steeply-priced timber inside the global, after African blackwood.[dubious – discuss] Both the wooden and the oil produce a one-of-a-kind fragrance that has been incredibly valued for hundreds of years. Consequently, species of those sluggish-developing timber have suffered overharvesting in beyond centuries.

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Sandalwoods are medium-sized hemiparasitic bushes, and part of the equal botanical family as European mistletoe. Notable individuals of this institution are Indian sandalwood (Santalum album) and Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum); others in the genus additionally have aromatic wood. These are discovered in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Australia, Indonesia, Hawaii, and different Pacific Islands.

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S. Album is a threatened species indigenous to South India, and grows within the Western Ghats and some other mountain tiers together with the Kalrayan and Shevaroy Hills. Although sandalwood trees in India, Pakistan, and Nepal are authorities-owned and their harvest is controlled, many timber are illegally reduce down. Sandalwood oil costs have risen to $2,000 per kg lately. Red sanders is endemic to Seshachalam, Veliganda, Lankamala, and Palakonda hill degrees, disbursed in districts of Kadapa, Chittoor, and Kurnool in Rayalaseema region and elements of Nellore and Prakasam in Andhra Pradesh, Mysore area of Karnataka (formerly Mysore State), and marayoor woodland in Kerala, southern India, is high in great. New plantations were created with international resource in Tamil Nadu for monetary exploitation. In Kununurra in Western Australia, Indian sandalwood is grown on a big scale. This species is the number one source of sandalwood utilized in industrial oil manufacturing and must no longer be harassed with West Indian Sandalwood, Amyris balsamifera.
S. Ellipticum, S. Freycinetianum, and S. Paniculatum, the Hawaiian sandalwood (ʻiliahi), were also used and taken into consideration high pleasant. These 3 species have been exploited between 1790 and 1825 earlier than the supply of timber ran out (a fourth species, S. Haleakalae, takes place best in subalpine regions and turned into never exported). Although S. Freycinetianum and S. Paniculatum are distinctly not unusual nowadays, they’ve now not regained their former abundance or size, and S. Ellipticum remains rare.
S. Spicatum is utilized by aromatherapists and perfumers. The oil concentration differs significantly from different Santalum species. In the 1840s, sandalwood become Western Australia’s largest export earner. Oil turned into distilled for the primary time in 1875, and by using the turn of the 20th century, manufacturing of Australian sandalwood oil changed into intermittent. However, within the past due Nineteen Nineties, Western Australian sandalwood oil enjoyed a revival and by means of 2009 had peaked at more than 20,000 kg (forty four,000 lb) per year – an awful lot of which went to the fragrance industries in Europe. Although average manufacturing has decreased, with the aid of 2011, a extensive percentage of its production was heading to the chewing tobacco industry in India along Indian sandalwood – the chewing tobacco marketplace being the biggest marketplace for both oils in 2012.
Other species: Commercially, numerous other species, not belonging to Santalum species, also are used as sandalwood.

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