The passionfruit vine is a shallow-rooted, woody, perennial, climbing with the aid of tendrils. The exchange, evergreen leaves, deeply three-lobed while mature, are finely toothed, 3 to 8 in (7.5-20 cm) lengthy, deep-inexperienced and glossy above, paler and stupid beneath, and, like the younger stems and tendrils, tinged with pink or red, in particular inside the yellow form. A single, fragrant flower, 2 to a few in (5-7.5 cm) wide, is borne at every node on the brand new increase. The bloom, clasped through three massive, inexperienced, leaflike bracts, consists of five greenish-white sepals, 5 white petals, a fringelike corona of hetero, white-tipped rays, rich crimson at the bottom, additionally five stamens with massive anthers, the ovary, and triple-branched fashion forming a outstanding critical shape. The flower of the yellow is the greater showy, with more extreme colour. The nearly round or ovoid fruit, 1 1/2 to 3 in (4-7.Five cm) huge, has a tough rind, easy, waxy, ranging in hue from dark-pink with faint, exceptional white specks, to light-yellow or pumpkin-shade. It is 1/eight in (3 mm) thick, adhering to a 1/four in (6 mm) layer of white pith. Within is a hollow space more or less packed with an fragrant mass of double-walled, membranous sacs packed with orange-colored, pulpy juice and as many as 250 small, tough, darkish-brown or black, pitted seeds. The flavor is attractive, musky, guava-like, subacid to acid.
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The red passionfruit is local from southern Brazil thru Paraguay to northern Argentina. It has been stated that the yellow form is of unknown origin, or perhaps native to the Amazon location of Brazil, or is a hybrid between P. Edulis and P. Ligularis (q.V.). Cytological research have not borne out the hybrid theory. Speculation as to Australian beginning arose via the creation of seeds from that united states into Hawaii and the mainland United States by means of E.N. Reasoner in 1923. Seeds of a yellow-fruited form had been despatched from Argentina to the USA Department of Agriculture in 1915 (S.P.I. No. 40852) with the explanation that the vine changed into grown on the Guemes Agricultural Experiment Station from seeds taken from fruits bought in Covent Garden, London. Some now suppose the yellow is a threat mutant that passed off in Australia. However, E.P. Killip, in 1938, defined P. Edulis in its natural variety as having pink or yellow end result.
Brazil has long had a well-mounted passionfruit enterprise with huge-scale juice extraction flowers. The crimson passionfruit is there favored for eating fresh; the yellow for juice processing and the making of preserves.
In Australia, the pink passionfruit become flourishing and partially naturalized in coastal regions of Queensland before 1900. Its cultivation, particularly on abandoned banana plantations, attained extraordinary importance and the crop changed into considered surprisingly ailment-unfastened and effortlessly controlled. Then, about 1943, a vast invasion of Fusarium wilt killed the vines and pressured the undertaking of research to discover fungus-resistant substitutes. It become observed that the ignored yellow passionfruit is both wilt-and nematode-resistant and does no longer sucker from the roots. It turned into followed as a rootstock and plant life propagated by means of grafting had been quickly made available to planters in Queensland and northern New South Wales.
The Australian taste is strongly prejudiced in prefer of the red passionfruit and growers had been reluctant to relinquish it altogether. Only in the previous couple of many years have they began to undertake hybrids of the crimson and yellow which have proven some capacity to withstand the critical virus disease referred to as “woodiness”.
New Zealand, in the early 1930’s, had a small however thriving crimson passionfruit industry in Auckland Province but in a few years the ailment-susceptibility of this kind added approximately its decline. Good local advertising and export possibilities have brought about a revival of efforts to manipulate infestations and increase acreage, in most cases within the Bay of Plenty region. Today, culmination and juice are exported. A worthwhile red passionfruit enterprise has developed also in New Guinea.
In Hawaii, seeds of the red passionfruit, brought from Australia, have been first planted in 1880 and the vine got here to be famous in domestic gardens. It quickly became naturalized in the lower forests and, by means of 1930, may be determined wild on all the islands of the Hawaiian chain. In the 1940’s, a Mr. Haley tried to marketplace canned passionfruit juice in a small way however the product was unsatisfactory and his attempt turned into terminated by way of World War II. A processor on Kauai produced a pay attention in glass jars and this venture, even though small, proved a success. In 1951, whilst Hawaiian passionfruit plantings totalled much less than five acres (2 ha), the University of Hawaii chose this fruit because the maximum promising crop for development and undertook to create an enterprise based on quick-frozen passionfruit juice pay attention. From among Mr. Haley’s vines, choice strains of yellow passionfruit had been selected. These gave four instances the yield of the crimson passionfruit and had a higher juice content. By 1958, 1,2 hundred acres (486 ha) were devoted to yellow passionfruit manufacturing and the industry become firmly mounted on a quality monetary stage.